What ! 停用 核能發電廠, 不建新電廠


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           Green Building Revolution 綠建築革命





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          Let the air flows
綠建築(Green Building)雙層玻璃帷幕,Double Skin雙層外皮

在雙層幕牆Double skin facade系統是由兩個玻璃層造成, 讓空氣流通於中間。通風道可以是自然通風或機械風扇。距離可從 20公分 ~ 2米。
兩牆形成的中介空間更可在無風時利用輻射熱所形成的高度溫差產生「煙囪效應」來幫助室內對流通風。

利用中庭、呼吸窗、可調節導風門 導風牆 穿風道 讓風貫穿辦公室 實現自然通風

酷暑難耐,在世博場館內,除了空調還有什麼辦法實現降溫?設計師們告訴大家,其實很多場館本身在設計時都採用了自然通風的設計,讓建築物充分降低能耗,自然降溫。

    被稱為上海未來的“綠建築”的“滬上‧生態家”,從裏到外都採用了自然通風設計。該項目技術負責人、住房城鄉建設部綠色建築工程技術研究中心常務副主任韓繼紅介紹說,“滬上‧生態家”主要根據上海地區氣候“冬冷夏熱”的特點,充分借用了上海傳統民居的元素,因地制宜,利用中庭、呼吸窗、導風墻等實現自然通風。

採用自然通風的方式來減少機械空調的依賴

另一個Double skin facade 設計的重要訴求就是讓超高層建築也能採用自然通風的方式來減少對於機械空調的依賴。依據建築外牆的風壓理論,愈是高層的建築,單純地靠開窗來解決室內通風換氣的需求就愈不可行。因為高度愈高風速就愈大,並且外牆的風壓會隨著建築造型與外牆位置改變,十分不容易控制。設計特殊的Double skin facade 能將整個外牆系統設計成一串的氣壓過濾機制來緩衝室內外風壓差,讓高樓開窗變成可能,

如建築配置節能、適當的開口率、外遮陽、開口部玻璃、開口部隔熱與氣密性、外殼構造及材料、屋頂構造與材料、帷幕牆、善用地形風、季風通風配置、善用中庭風、善用植物過濾空氣、開窗通風性能、大樓風的防治、風力通風的設計、浮力通風設計、

通風塔在建築上的運用空調分區、風扇空調並用系統、大空間分層空調、空調回風排熱、吸收式冷凍機及熱源台數控制、儲冷槽系統 全熱交換系統、CO2濃度外氣控制系統與外氣冷房系統、建築能源管理系統

雙層玻璃牆 降低 能源消耗65%

大家都明白,雙層玻璃牆有許多優點比傳統單層玻璃牆

這研究實行 by Franklin Andrews, Michael Wigginton教授 of大學 of Plymouth and Battle McCarthy, on behalf of 英國 環境部( Department of Environment) 已證明雙層建築物 能夠降低能源消耗65%,減少二氧化碳排放量減少 50%,
這是在寒溫氣候的英國得的數據, 若在較熱的台灣應有更好的表現。

Cost 成本 花費

This exercise, performed in collaboration with Franklin and Andrews International Property and Construction Consultants, investigated both the capital and operating costs issues. Capital costs were compared for a conventional facade building and a building employing a double skin. 
An elemental rate for a high quality double skin façade was determined and was found to be circa 20% more expensive than a comparable conventional facade. Considering reductions in plant costs (due to improved environmental performance), the narrow plan double skin building was found to be 7.5% more expensive whilst the deep plan building was found to be 4% more expensive. The value engineering exercise reduced this difference to 5% and 2.5% for the narrow and deep plan respectively

這項實驗是由Franklin and Andrews International Property and Construction Consultants(建築顧問),同時調查 建設資金和營運成本,雙層玻璃牆的價格大約比同類傳統建築貴20%。

請參考 以下 的分析
http://www.battlemccarthy.demon.co.uk/research/doubleskin/mainpage.htm

Cool your house


Fundamentally, the idea behind cooling your house without the aid of air conditioning is to minimize sources of heat and remove built-up heat from inside.
Here are some helpful tips:

Now that energy efficiency measures including higher levels of insulation and multi-layered glazing have become standard, it is easier than ever before to create a comfortable and affordable passive solar house that will provide year-round comfort in any climate.

Cut back the transfer of heat through the roof and walls. If the attic isn’t already insulated or is under insulated, insulate your attic NOW.
This will give you the greatest change in comfort for the least amount of expense.

Closely monitor the temperature both inside and out with an indoor/outdoor thermometer.
When it is cooler outside, open up windows and doors to ventilate. If you have operable
skylights or transom windows high on walls, open them to let out super-heated air and
create convection currents.


從根本上來說 在沒有空調的幫助下儘量減少熱源並減少從內部的堆積熱。
現在 能源效率的措施包括 更高級的絕緣和多層次的玻璃已經成為標準,它比以往任何時候更容易創建一個舒適和負擔得起的 被動式太陽房屋, 提供全年舒適性在任何​​氣候。
下面是一些有用的提示:
削減通過屋頂和牆體傳熱,
閣樓還未絕緣隔熱或已經絕緣,現在就絕緣你的閣樓,在舒適上這將給你最大的變化 最少的費用。
密切監測內部和外部的溫度, 當外面涼爽,開放門窗通風,如果你有可操作的天窗或氣窗,打開它們讓過熱的空氣出去,並創造對流。


 

 

 

 

Buffer System:

These façades date back some 100 years and are still used. They predate insulating glass and were invented to maintain daylight into buildings while increasing insulating and sound properties of the wall system. They use two layers of single glazing spaced 250 to 900 mm apart, sealed and allowing fresh air into the building through additional controlled means – either a separate HVAC system or box type windows which cut through the overall double skin. Shading devices can be included in the cavity. A modern example of this type is the Occidental Chemical/Hooker Building in Niagara Falls, New York. This building allows fresh air intake at the base of the cavity and exhausts air at the top.

 

 


Extract Air system:

These are comprised of a second single layer of glazing placed on the interior of a main façade of double-glazing (thermopane units). The air space between the two layers of glazing becomes part of the HVAC system. The heated “used” air between the glazing layers is extracted through the cavity with the use of fans and thereby tempers the inner layer of glazing while the outer layer of insulating glass minimizes heat-transmission loss. Fresh air is supplied by HVAC and precludes natural ventilation. The air contained within the system is used by the HVAC system. These systems tend not to reduce energy requirements as fresh air changes must be supplied mechanically. Occupants are prevented from adjusting the temperature of their individual spaces. Shading devices are often mounted in the cavity. Again the space between the layers of glass ranges from around 150 mm to 900 mm and is a function of the space needed to access the cavity for cleaning as well as the dimension of the shading devices. This system is used where natural ventilation is not possible (for example in locations with high noise, wind or fumes).
Extract Air Façade
Twin Face Façade

Twin Face system:

This system consists of a conventional curtain wall or thermal mass wall system inside a single glazed building skin. This outer glazing may be safety or laminated glass or insulating glass. Shading devices may be included.

These systems must have an interior space of at least 500 to 600 mm to permit cleaning. These systems may be distinguished from both Buffer and Extract Air systems by their inclusion of openings in the skin to allow for natural ventilation. The single-glazed outer skin is used primarily for protection of the air cavity contents (shading devices) from weather. With this system, the internal skin offers the insulating properties to minimize heat loss. The outer glass skin is used to block/slow the wind in high-rise situations and allow interior openings and access to fresh air without the associated noise or turbulence. Windows on the interior façade can be opened, while ventilation openings in the outer skin moderate temperature extremes within the façade. The use of windows can allow for night-time cooling of the interior thereby lessening cooling loads of the building’s HVAC system. For sound control, the openings in the outer skin can be staggered or placed remotely from the windows on the interior façade. The RWE Tower in Germany would typify a classic Twin-Face building.

 

 

 






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